Center for Women's History
Women’s history is American history. Bring it into your classroom with our new curriculum!
Major support for Women and the American Story provided by
Robert and Mercedes Eichholz Foundation
Curriculum website and learning experience made possible through a grant from
This program is supported as part of the Dutch Culture USA program by the Consulate General of the Netherlands in New York.
Lead support for New-York Historical's teacher programs provided by
Congressional Pugilists, 1798. Etching on wove paper. New-York Historical Society Library, PR 10.
Resource 2: Political Battles
This 1796 political cartoon satirizes a caning episode between Federalist and Republican congressional opponents during the Adams administration, as elected officials stood by, grinning foolishly. In the young government, a man’s honor—his character and reputation—were the main qualifications for office, leading to aggressive, personal responses to political disagreements.